Friday, 18 August 2017

JAKHOO TEMPLE Himachal tour packages,kullu manali packages,kullu manali shimla package

JAKHOO TEMPLE
JAKHOO TEMPLE

Jakhoo Temple is associate degree ancient temple in Shimla, dedicated to divinity, Hanuman. it's located on Jakhoo Hill, 2.5 km /1.3 miles east from the Ridge, Shimla at a height of two,455 m (8,000 feet) on top of water level. Shimla's highest peak offers a position of the Shivalik Ranges and therefore the city of Sanjauli. associate degree ancient "Lord Hanuman" temple is there and each year an enormous competition is hung on Dussehra. will|you'll|you'll be able to} head to the temple by foot (a steep climb) from Ridge (path behind the church) or can rent a pony/horse. Taxis area unit accessible too. One legend goes that Lord Hanuman stopped there to rest whereas he was sorting out the Sanjivni Booti to revive Lakshmana within the Epic Ramayana.
On arrival at the temple signs advise guests to secure all personal belongings and watch out for the monkeys, that area unit everyplace. this is often applicable because the temple is in honour of the Monkey Lord. guests should take away shoes (and leave them within the "shoe house") before coming into the temple. There area unit many eateries at the temple web site. native guests ring the bell permanently luck before creating the descent into Shimla. World's tallest sculpture of Lord Hanuman was unveiled  to public by Abhishek Bachchan on five Nov 2010. simply on the outskirts of this erstwhile summer capital of a people rule, an enormous 108-feet-high idol of Hanuman was unveiled  at Jakhoo Hanuman temple in 2010, high the complete town.
Given its large size, it might not be out of place to mention that monkeys are going to be ubiquitous during this celebrated traveler destination that already features a giant monkey population. At one08 feet at the best altitude of over 8100 feet and made at a value of Rs 1.5 crores, it surpasses the sculpture of 'Christ the Redeemer', that measures at ninety eight feet DEgree|associate}d stands at an altitude of 2296 feet in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. 

Friday, 11 August 2017

CHINTAPURNI TEMPLE Himachal tour packages,kullu manali packages,kullu manali shimla package

CHINTAPURNI TEMPLE 
CHINTAPURNI TEMPLE

Chintpurni (Hindi: चिंतपूर्णी Punjabi: ਚਿੰਤਪੂਰਨੀ) may be a major journey center and one in every of the Hindu deity Peethas in Bharat. The Chintpurni Hindu deity peeth (Chhinnamastika Hindu deity peeth) is found in Una district Himachal Pradesh state, enclosed by the western Himalaya within the north and east within the smaller Shiwalik (or Shivalik) vary bordering the state of geographic region. The Chintpurni Hindu deity Peeth homes the temple of Chinnamastika Devi or Chinnamasta Devi. Chhinnamasta or Chinnamastika temple is one in every of the seven major and fifty one total Hindu deity Peethas. Here, Chhinnamasta is understood because the severed-headed one likewise because the foreheaded-one. The Hindu family tree registers at Chintpurni, Himachal Pradesh ar unbroken here. once Lord Hindu deity cut off the burning body of Maa Sati into fifty one items so Lord Shiva would settle down and stop his Tandava, the items were scattered over varied places within the Indian landmass. it's believed that Sati’s head fell at this place and is so thought-about one in every of the foremost vital of the fifty one Hindu deity Peethas.
The divinity residing in Chintpurni is additionally better-known by the name of Chhinnamastika. in step with Markandeya Purana, divinity Chandi defeated the demons once a fierce battle however 2 of her yogini emanations (Jaya and Vijaya) were still thirsty for a lot of blood. divinity Chandi interrupt her own head to quench Jaya and Vijaya’s thirst for a lot of blood. She is typically shown holding her own cut off head in her hand, drinking one stream of blood running from the arteries in her neck, whereas at her aspect ar 2 naked yoginis, every of whom drinks another stream of blood. Chhinnamasta, the headless divinity, is that the nice Cosmic Power WHO helps the sincere and devoted yogi to dissolve his or her mind, as well as all the create by mental act concepts, attachments and habits into the Pure Divine Consciousness. alienating the top suggests the separation of the mind from the body, that's the liberty of the consciousness from the fabric scope of the body. in step with Puranic traditions, Chhinnamastika Devi are protected by Shiva - Hindu deity Mahadev within the four directions. There ar four Shiva temples - Kaleshwar Mahadev within the east, Narayhana Mahadev within the west, Muchkund Mahadev within the north and Shiva Bari within the south - that ar nearly equal from Chintpurni.
This additionally confirms Chintpurni because the abode of Chhinnamastika Devi. The Chinna Mastika Devi may be a divine embodiment of selflessness and there by the Chintpurni shri is taken into account as a Hindu deity Peetha. The mythology of Daksha yaga and Sati's self ritual killing is that the mythology liked  to the Hindu deity Peethas. Hindu deity Peethas ar holy shrines of Hindu deity related to a mythology that says regarding the falling of body components of the body of Sati Devi, once Lord Shiva carried it and wandered in sorrow. There ar fifty one Hindu deity Peeth related to the fifty one alphabets in Sanskrit. it's believed that Sati Devi's feet fell here. Pandit Mai Das, a Saraswat Brahman, is usually believed to own established this shrine of Mata Chintpurni Devi in Chhaproh village regarding twenty six generations agone. Over time this place became called Chintpurni once the name immortal. His descendants still board Chintpurni and perform prayers and puja at the Chintpurni temple. These descendants ar the official clergymen at the Temple.

Friday, 4 August 2017

CHANDRAKHANI PASS Himachal tour packages,kullu manali packages,kullu manali shimla package

CHANDRAKHANI PASS
CHANDRAKHANI PASS

Chandrakhani Pass (Hindi: चंद्रखनी दर्रा) is found within the Kullu District at a height of three,660 metres. It forms a way(pass) between the villages of Rumsu and Pulag to the documented village of Malana, that indirectly forms a trekking route from Naggar to Malana across the Chandrakhani Pass. The pass incorporates a ton of non secular importance because it was once the seat of meditation for the Saptarishi Jamadagni. A legend has it that there was once an area immortal named Jamlu of Malana, and he had in his had a basket of the native gods, once he was on the highest of the pass, he opened the basket and incidentally a powerful wind came by and blew away all the idols to the near  peaks, that is why all the near  mountain peaks of Indrasan, Deo Tibba, Pir Pinjal & Parbati vary area unit thought of holy and might be seen terribly clearly from the pass. There area unit treks conducted to the present pass frequently, either from the village of Malana or the city of Naggar.Backpack Jaunts will assist you organize a trek to Chandrakhani Pass(prior booking required).
Once the trek starts in Naggar, one passes through the village of Rumsu then to an area named 'Stelling' when that one passes through the bottom camps of 'Ghankuladi', 'Chaklani' , when that one would reach Chandrakhani Pass then descend on to 'Nagroni' then to Malana village. the closest airfield Bhuntar airfield (IATA code KUU) is at Bhuntar city, located on NH21 regarding thirty two.3 km (20.1 mi) south west of Kasol and one0 kilometre (6.2 mi) south of Kullu city. The airfield is additionally referred to as Kullu-Manali airfield and has over a metric linear unit long runway. Air India and a few personal airlines have regular flights to the airfield. Recently chain Bulls unitedly with Deccan Charters have started flights on Kullu-Chandigarh-Kullu sector thrice daily http://himalayanbulls.com  Daily flight service (except Tuesday) has been started by fifteen could 2013 at Bhunter airfield by Air India from city to Bhuntar and contrariwise. Chandigarh airfield is that the nearest international airfield.
Naggar is equal from Manali additionally as Kullu and might be reached from city by national main road NH one up to Ambala and from there NH twenty two to Chandigarh and from there by national main road NH21 that passes through Bilaspur, Sundernagar, Mandi and Kullu cities. The road distance from Chandigarh to Manali is 316 kilometre (196 mi), and therefore the total distance from city to Manali is 566 kilometre (352 mi). Buses (including Volvo and Mercedes Benz) on this route area unit offered from all major bus terminals.Manali isn't simply approachable by rail. the closest railroad track railheads area unit at Chandigarh (275 kilometre (171 mi)), Pathankot (325 kilometre (202 mi)) and Kalka (310 kilometre (193 mi)). the closest railway railhead is at Joginder Nagar (135 kilometres (84 mi)).See Bilaspur–Mandi–Leh line for the projected railway line through this space.

Saturday, 29 July 2017

BHRIGU LAKE Himachal tour packages,kullu manali packages,kullu manali shimla package

BHRIGU LAKE 

Bhrigu Lake could be a lake settled at Associate in Nursing elevation of around four,300 metres (14,100 ft) in Kullu district, Himachal Pradesh, India. it's settled to the east of Rohtang Pass and is around half dozen kilometres (3.7 mi) from Gulaba village. It may be reached by trekking either from the Vashishth temple, that is legendary for its quandary springs, that is near the city of Manali or from Gulaba village. truly there's no settlement in Gulaba and is truly a district of the Pir Panjal formation. it's named when Maharishi Bhrigu.
Legend has it that the sage wont to mediate close to the lake and therefore it's been rendered sacred; the locals believe that as a result of this the lake ne'er freezes fully. Most of the high altitude lakes unremarkably need multiple days of hiking before you'll be able to finally love the read of the lake. however here we've got Bhrigu lake that is simply 2 days hike removed from Manali. This lake lies to the east of the known Rohtang Pass and is a perfect weekend hiking choice. Trek starts from close to Gulaba that is twenty two kms from Manali. the primary day of hike is thru virgin forests with fabulous views of Manali & Solang vale until you reach the Camp website of Roli Kholi. Second day of the hike could be a treat for those that like to see snow on a trek.
The hike to bhrigu is steep & comprise of walking over massive expanse of snow (In the months of winter) until you reach some extent wherever the oval formed lake seems. fancy the quite surroundings close to the lake & later on descend through meadows to the camp website of Pandu Ropa. On the third day the initial walk is thru rice fields of Pandu Ropa with grand views of snow clad mountains. The rivulets of water flowing through high grass gift a refreshing sight. The last leg of hike could be a steep good through previous mountain villages & apple orchards. The trek ends in Vashish that is simply the proper place to finish a hike attributable to a hot sulphur water spring. Take a dip in pool here & head to Manali wherever the trek ends.

Friday, 21 July 2017

JOGINI FALLS Himachal tour packages,kullu manali packages,kullu manali shimla package

JOGINI FALLS
JOGINI FALLS

This is nearly three klick trek from Vashisht temple. Vashisht temple is a pair of klick from Main market space of Manali and you'll be able to reach parking lot of temple in quarter-hour by vehicle. once visiting the Vashisht temple complicated you'll be able to begin the trek. The trek route passes through slender lane by the facet of temple and it goes through apple orchids, tall pine trees little water streams. On the means few restaurants and guest homes are accessible. a delicate walk can take half-hour to achieve the bottom of the body of water. little stretch of up slope are going to be there close to the body of water. whereas motion you'll be able to see Beas stream and snow peaks of Rohtang at your left facet. Yogini mata temple is at the bottom of the body of water. From here if will|you'll|you'll be able to} climb then can reach the highest purpose of the body of water. The stiff climb can take twenty minutes additional to achieve at high. If you do not wish to climb up then towards your right facet through slender path you'll be able to reach the bottom of the body of water.
Here there's little pool fashioned by the falling water and here you'll be able to take bathtub and pay it slow. Or straightforward pay it slow close to temple and watch the body of water. within the temple there's provision for the devotees to supply Mundan or tonsure and take food in accessible stone plates. This is often nice mild trek which may be completed in 2 hours time from Vashisht temple. this is often the simplest thanks to get pleasure from native scenic beauty and village life at Manali. you'll be able to cowl Vashisht temple ( natural spring bathtub ) and Jogini body of water during a day program. Take your packed lunch and revel in the food at the bottom of the body of water. Afternoon is healthier for photography as daylight directly falls on the water droplets. The road leads out of Manali city and once crossing the most bridge over the stream Beas we have a tendency to walk uphill towards the Vashisht village three Kms away on a well outlined path.
Once walking through the {traditional} village with some spectacular traditional design, we have a tendency to pass the temple and therefore the hot sulphur springs and baths to follow a path with a small incline. It takes concerning one hour to achieve these impressive falls. get pleasure from associate degree energizing dip beneath these cascading falls and have your packed lunch whereas loving the soaring snow clad mountains all around. we have a tendency to come back identical thanks to Vashisht and Manali by evening. a nice walk on the stream Beas takes you to the little hamlet of soft drug. From here a gentle climb on alittle rill results in the traditional village of Vashisht. Visit the temples and if you fell like, take a dip within the Hot Sulphur springs.  A energizing packed lunch is provided at the Jogini falls a brief distance from Vashisht village. By late afternoon come back to Manali either by walk or auto / automobile.

Friday, 14 July 2017

TRILOKNATH TEMPLE Himachal tour packages,kullu manali packages,kullu manali shimla package

TRILOKNATH TEMPLE 
TRILOKNATH TEMPLE

The Sri Trilokinath Jemaah Islamiyah Temple is in an exceedingly village of same name vi metric linear unit south of the neighborhood of the Chaṅdrābhāgā or Chenab stream, and concerning nine metric linear unit from the village of Udaipur, within the Lahul and Spiti District of Himachal Pradesh, India. it's sacred to each Tibetan Buddhists and Hindus. The fulgid white-painted temple is set on a geological formation at the tip of a village street. Its altitude is two,760 metres (9,055 ft). 'Trilokinath' is one amongst the names of the Hindu god, Shiva, that means the "Lord of the 3 Worlds".However native tradition clearly states that it absolutely was originally a Buddhist vihara or religious residence, though nothing remains of the first building.
There's apparently nothing left of the first temple structure, however there's a robust native tradition that says Trilokinath was originally a Buddhist vihara. The temple had a marble sculpture of a six-headed Avalokitesvara that was purloined decades past and replaced at the start with a crude image manufactured from gray stone, and later with the current six-armed white marble Avalokitesvara, that is attributed by some to the twelfth century. it's revered as Avalokitesvara by Buddhists and as Shiva by Hindus and is topped with a picture of Amitabha Buddha - the 'Buddha of unbounded light-weight.' the first image is alleged to possess been coeval with the Avalokitesvara head found close to the confluence of the Chandra and Hindu deity rivers and is currently housed at the Guru Ghantal or Gandhola religious residence. This head has been claimed up to now to the time of Nagarjuna (2nd century CE)[6] which can indicate some reference to the far-famed Kanika (Kanishka) stupa at Sani religious residence in near  Zangskar. Handa, though, each these pictures will be dated on rhetorical grounds to round the eighth century or a century earlier. settler and Vogel speculate that it absolutely was originally a Shiva temple however was created into a Buddhist place of worship by Padmasambhava within the eighth century.
They conjointly state that the "Guru Ghantal white marble head is of identical accomplishment because the Trilokinath image, and each square measure of identical Bodhisattva." a preferred story says that a Kulu Raja reached Trilokinath and tried to hold off the idol, however was defeated within the try, because the stone became too serious to maneuver. there's a mark on the correct leg of the marble figure, that is alleged to possess resulted from a brand blow by a Kullu soldier of the time. the first temple columns originate the time of King Lalitaditya within the ninth century metal. At the yard square measure massive Buddhist prayer wheels and a granite symbol and little Nandi (bull) representing Shiva, whereas the traditional picket pagoda-style temple is embellished with Tibetan prayer flags. each Hindus and Buddhists celebrate the three-day Pauri pageant here in August. Typical of the design introduced within the region throughout the seventh to eighth centuries, this temple consists of a curving stone tower shikhara topped with the characteristic amalka (imitating a segmental gourd). not like the temples on the plains there's no columned hall mandapa within the hill temples maybe owing to the shortage of clear ground. A silver idol of Kali as Mahishasurmardini was put in by Thakur Himpala in 1959-60.

Friday, 7 July 2017

TARA DEVI TEMPLE Himachal tour packages,kullu manali packages,kullu manali shimla package

TARA DEVI TEMPLE 
TARA DEVI TEMPLE

In Hinduism, the immortal Tara; that means "One UN agency protects", is that the second of the Dasa (ten) Mahavidyas or "Great knowledge [goddesses]", and could be a variety of Shakti (primeval energy in feminine form). Tantric manifestations of Durga or Mahadevi, or Parvati. The word 'Tara', and additionally 'Tarini' (another well-liked name of the goddess) are derived from the Sanskritic language root language unit 'tAr', signifying protection. In several different up to date Indian languages, the word 'tara' additionally suggests that star. because the star is seen as a gorgeous however constantly self-combusting factor, energizing all of life, therefore Tara is perceived at the "mother of all buddhas" - the unified field of energy from that all type arises. The oral tradition offers associate origin to the immortal Tara. The legend begins with the churning of the ocean between the Devas and Asuras. Lord Shiva drank the poison (Halahala) that was created from the churning of the ocean (in the method turning his throat blue and earning him the epithet Nilakantha), so saving the planet from destruction, however fell unconscious below its powerful impact.
Mahadevi Durga appeared as Maa Tara and took Shiva on her lap. She breast-fed him, the milk from her breasts counteracting the poison, and he recovered. This story is harking back to the one during which Shiva stops the rampaging Kali by changing into associate babe. Seeing the kid, Kali's maternal instinct involves the fore and once she was feeding him her breast milk Shiva sucked her rage out whereas consumption the milk. In each cases, Shiva assumes the position of associate babe vis-à-vis the immortal. in the main Tara could be a variety of Durga . As Per Shakti Mahabhagwat, She is that the one UN agency created first Seed from that the whole universe took birth within the variety of Lord Narayana. Since he was Non manifested divinity therefore next Mahavidya swollen him in order that manifested divinity Lord Vishnu took birth from him.
Kali and Tara square measure similar in look. They each square measure delineated  as standing upon a supine Shiva in associate inert or corpse-like type. However, whereas Kali is delineated  as black, Tara is delineated  as blue. each wear smallest wear, but Tara wears a tiger-skin skirt, whereas Kali wears solely a girdle of cut human arms. each wear a garland of cut human heads. each have a lounging tongue, and blood oozes from their mouths. Their appearances square measure therefore strikingly similar that it's simple to mistake one for the opposite. Indeed, they're usually aforementioned to be manifestations of every other; as an example, in their thousand-name hymns they share several epithets similarly as having every other's names. Tara, as an example, is termed Kalika, Ugra-kali, Mahakali, and Bhadra-kali. Tara is claimed to be additional approachable to the fan (Bhakta) or Tantrika owing to her maternal instincts; but an oversized population of Bengali Hindus approach Kali herself as "Ma" or "mother".
Like Kali, what is more, Tara in her Hindu context enjoys blood. In her hymn of 100 names from the Mundamala-tantra, she is termed "She UN agency Likes Blood", "She UN agency Is smudged with Blood" and "She UN agency Enjoys Blood Sacrifice". The Tara-tantra describes Tara's enjoyment of each animal and human blood however says that the latter is additional pleasing to her. The blood of devotees is to be taken from nominative components of the body, like the forehead, hands, breasts, head, or space between the eyebrows; a number of these areas could correspond to the various chakras, non secular centers inside the body. Tara is distinguished visually from Kali primarily via her implements. Four armed, she carries a kill steel, a cut head or bone cup, a lotus and scissors. The cut symbolizes Tara's ability to chop through unwanted habits so liberating the individual for non secular transcendence. Kali ne'er holds a lotus or a combine of scissors.

Monday, 3 July 2017

Kangra Fort, Dharamsala Tours, Dharamsala Sightseen


KANGRA
The Kangra Fort is found twenty kilometers from the city of Dharamsala on the outskirts of the city of Kangra, India
The Kangra Fort was designed by the royal Rajput family of Kangra State (the Katoch dynasty), that traces its origins to the traditional Trigarta Kingdom, mentioned within the religious writing epic. it's the most important fort within the Himalayas and doubtless the oldest dated fort in Republic of India.
The fort of Kangra resisted Akbar's beleaguering in 1615. However, Akbar's son Jehangir with success subdued the fort in 1620.  Kangra was at the time dominated by Raja Hari Chand Katoch of Kangra (also referred to as Raja Hari Chand II)  Mughal Emperor Jahangir with the assistance of Suraj Mal garrisoned together with his troops.

The Katoch Kings repeatedly plundered Mughal controlled regions, weakening the Mughal management, aiding within the decline of Mughal power, Raja Sansar Chand II succeeded in sick the traditional fort of his ancestors, in 1789. prince Sansar Chand fought multiple battles with Gurkhas on one facet and Sikh King prince Ranjit Singh on the opposite. Sansar Chand wont to keep his neighboring Kings captive, and this LED to conspiracies against him. throughout a battle between the Sikhs and Katochs, the gates of the fort had been unbroken open for provides.
The Gurkha army entered the opened scarcely armed gates in 1806. This forced Associate in Nursing alliance between prince Sansar Chand and prince Ranjit Singh. due to the insufficiency of the necessity at intervals the fort once an extended war and unable to obtain any, the Gurkhas left the Fort. The Fort remained with the Katochs till 1828 once Ranjit Singh annexed it once Sansar Chand's death. The fort was finally taken by land once the Sikh war of 1846.



A British garrison occupied the fort until it was heavily damaged in an earthquake on 4 April 1905.
The entrance to the fort is through a small courtyard enclosed between two gates which were built during the Sikh period, as appears from an inscription over the entrance. From here a long and narrow passage leads up to the top of the fort, through the Ahani and Amiri Darwaza (gate), both attributed to Nawab Saif Ali Khan, the first Mughal Governor of Kangra. About 500 feet from the outer gate the passage turns round at a very sharp angle and passes through the Jehangiri Darwaza.

The Darsani Darwaza, which is now flanked by defaced statues of River Goddesses Ganga and Yamuna gave access to a courtyard, along the south side of which stood the shrines Lakshmi-Narayana Sitala and Ambika Devi. In between these shrines is a passage that leads up to the palace. It is one of the most beautiful forts in India.
he fort is right next to Kangra town. 32.1°N 76.27°E The fort stands on a steep rock in Purana Kangra (translates to Old Kangra) dominating the surrounding valley, built strategically at the "sangam" confluence (places where two rivers meet) of Banganga and Majhi rivers. It is said that Kangra belongs to one who owns the fort.





 Also near to old Kangra is the famous Jayanti Mata temple on a hill top. The Temple was built by the General of the Gorkha Army, Bada Kaji Amar Singh Thapa. Also close to entrance is a small museum which exhibits the history of Kangra fort.
Jayanti Mata Temple – built by the General of the Gorkha, Bada Kaji Amar Singh Thapa
Adjoining the Fort is the Maharaja Sansar Chand Katoch Museum run by the Royal Family of Kangra. The Museum also provides audio guides for the fort and the museum and has a cafeteria.



Saturday, 1 July 2017

VAHISHT TEMPLE Himachal tour packages,kullu manali packages,kullu manali shimla package

VAHISHT TEMPLE 
VASHIST TEMPLE

Vashisht village can be a inexperienced patch of steep hill hanging at very cheap on a drop. The village is vi km from Manali at the banks of the Beas watercourse opposite recent Manali. Vashisht is approachable from Manali by zero.5 associate hour walk or a quick return on a slanted road by automobile cart for Rs.50. Most foreign tourists most popular staying here or at the recent Manali than the downtown Manali. moneyed traditions and nice cafes square measure integral for backpackers. Vashisht has all that. Like recent Manali, Vashisht is jam-pawncked with tourists throughout peak seasons.Streams rise at very cheap of this mountain. I walked up from the foremost road near the Beas watercourse through alittle steep pathway. The road was idyllic. Clear streams pass though the road and alittle bridge suspends over it. the country village incorporates a relaxed soothing impact.The village still retains the conventional house making vogue. every natural depression springs up surprise. At one corner there’s this German search and at resultant flip we’ve the conventional homes with cows.
Foreign tourists World Health Organization have exclusively seen cows on the road in Republic of Asian nation looked swamped like they were seeing a ruminant or a antelope.Vashisht was named once Rishi Vashisht one in each of the seven sages of Hindu. Legend has it that the saddened Rishi Vashisht once learning that his youngsters were killed by Vishwamitra tried to kill. but the watercourse refused to kill him. The watercourse was therefore named as Vipasha that accurately suggests that ‘freedom from bondage’. it had been later shortened to Beas watercourse. He began mediating and vowed to begin out his life anew.The Vashisht temple that exists even today is believed to be quite 4000 years. It’s difficult  to imagine but a vicinity thus recent would possibly keep thus little. perhaps the village is protected by its difficult  landscapes. Vashisht temple is made in an exceedingly ancient vogue with many labyrinthine wood carvings. it's additionally most well-liked for warm springs that is believed to own healthful price.
There ar separate bathing arrangement for men and girls. in keeping with another legend Lakshman UN agency paid a visit realised that the sage had to travel for long walks to require tub. He shot associate arrow into the bottom and plight began to gush out. There’s another temple ancient stone temple referred to as Rama Temple adjacent to the Vashisht Temple.Vashisht village is taken into account a very important place by the Hindus in Asian nation. The place is commonly related to pilgrims.Most outlets in Vashisht sell woolen garments. There ar stunning cafes and eating places right along the most street. Vashisht offers out and away the simplest read of the Beas watercourse and therefore the recent Manali. observation the watercourse natural depression unfold below at sunset leaves a long-lasting photographic image in my mind.

Saturday, 24 June 2017

LEH-MANALI HIGHWAY Himachal tour packages,kullu manali packages,kullu manali shimla package

LEH-MANALI HIGHWAY
LEH-MANALI HIGHWAY

The Leh–Manali main road (Hindi: लेह-मनाली राजमार्ग Lēh-manālī rājmārg) could be a 490 kilometre (300 mi) longhighway in northmost Republic of India connecting Leh in Ladakh in Jammu and Cashmere state and Manali in Himachal Pradesh state. it's open for less than concerning four and a 0.5 months in an exceedingly year in summer between could or June, once the snow is cleared, and period once snow once more blocks the high passes. It connects Manali depression to Lahaul and Spiti depressions and Zanskar valley in Ladakh. Leh–Manali main road was designed and designed and is maintained entirely by the Border Roads Organisation (BRO) of Indian army. it's capable of supporting the heaviest of army vehicles. the typical elevation of Leh-Manali main road is quite four,000 m (13,000 feet) and its highest elevation is five,328 m (17,480 ft) at Tanglang La notch. it's flanked by mountain ranges on each side that includes some beautiful sand and rock natural formations.The road between Leh-Manali in Ladakh. The main road crosses several tiny streams of cold water from cover mountains and glacial melts while not a bridge and it needs driving talent to barter fast-flowing streams. The landscape changes at once when obtaining past Rohtang Pass and moving into Chandra stream depression in Lahaul region that lies in rain-shadow.
The verdure on the southern facet of the notch disappears and therefore the mountain slopes on the leeward become brown and arid. However, the mountain peaks ar coated in snow and shine bright in sun. Leh-Manali main road is mostly 2 lanes wide (one lane in either direction) while not a road-divider however has just one or one and a 0.5 lanes at some stretches. it's over a dozen bailey bridges and most of them ar in damaged condition. The main road has several broken stretches and under-maintenance parts wherever even slightly downfall will trigger landslide creating it terribly dangerous to cross that stretch of the road. The riding quality isn't sensible at several places and quick speeds will cause discomfort. the entire length of the main road is concerning 490 kilometre (300 mi).[2] the space in Himachal Pradesh state between Manali and Sarchu is 230 kilometre (140 mi)[3] and therefore the distance in Ladakh region from Sarchu to Leh is 260 kilometre (160 mi). The length in Himachal Pradesh state can cut back by concerning sixty kilometre (37 mi) once Rohtang Tunnel is commissioned in 2019 preclusive the necessity to climb to Rohtang Pass. At Sarchu, Lahaul region ends at the Himachal Pradesh state border and Zanskar region starts in Ladakh region of Jammu and Cashmere state. The journey from Manali to Leh unremarkably takes a minimum of 2 days if wiped out a rush, or additional days counting on the condition of the road and vehicle (though minimum 3 days ar suggested for standard traveller as a result of the $64000 fun and pleasure is within the journey itself and not in reaching the destination). Tourists and travellers build nightlong stops at Jispa and tented camps like Sarchu. Alternately, nightlong stops are often created at Keylong city.
However, period of time is unpredictable owing to uncertainties of weather which will flip inclement any time and play unwelcome person, and poor condition of the road. The Leh-Manali main road consists of typically unhealthy stretches of roads, snow crossings, water crossings owing to glacial melts and occasional landslides. It transverses high passes at over five,000 metres. the height travel season is throughout could and June once plenty of tourists visit Rohtang pass. Most of the domestic tourists come back to Manali and don't cross Rohtang pass towards north. a lot of of Rohtang pass remains coated by snow even throughout summer. Public buses begin from Manali towards Keylong and forward early at four am and when each 2 hours around till twelve hour. The hour bus is that the last one. The time taken till Keylong is four to ten hours relying upon the condition of the road (that generally turns into a slush or becomes too slippery to travel owing to recent snow or melting of snow) and tie up that happens at Beas nallah close to Marhi then at Rohtang pass. it's sensible to cross Rohtang pass before eight am. non-public machine drive taxi ar obtainable. Share taxi ar low-cost as they charge per person however ought to be avoided by tourists as they're overcrowded with native residents and don't permit a decent read of the surface. The fun within the journey is lost whereas travel incommodious in share taxi.
Moreover, they can not be stopped at can at anyplace. Some tourists travel from Manali to Leh and alternative places in Ladakh on motorcycles, typically in an exceedingly cluster. thanks to the rarefied atmosphere (low air pressure) at high altitude, less chemical element is breathed in and lots of travellers expertise hypoxia or acute altitude sickness. Before starting the journey on the main road towards Leh, it's sensible to remain at the start line Manali (altitude one,950 m (6,400 ft)) one night and once more minimum one night at either Keylong, Jispa or Darcha to deal with the high passes and plains when Darcha. it's powerfully suggested to not sleep in Sarchu or Pang on the upward journey (towards Leh) because it will cause acute mountain sickness: headache, nausea, vertigo and ejection. There are deaths from AMS moreover. The safe possibility is to camp at Leh or higher altitude when obtaining acclimated to lower chemical element levels. it's additionally sensible to hold chocolates, aldohexose or alternative high energy food on the journey and pay solely slightly time at the high mountain passes.Ladakh could be a cold semi-arid desert. it's cold on the main road even in summer (June onwards); the times ar heat in bright sunshine however the nights ar terribly cold. The water from glacial melts is cold and one ought to avoid obtaining wet in water-crossings on the main road. light-weight woollens ar needed throughout the day and thick woollens ar needed in the dark. there's no downfall between Rohtang pass and Leh even throughout the monsoon season in July–September because the entire region lies in rain-shadow.

Friday, 16 June 2017

GREAT HIMALAYAN NATINONAL PARK Himachal tour packages,kullu manali packages,kullu manali shimla package

GREAT HIMALAYAN NATINONAL PARK
GREAT HIMALAYAN NATIONAL PARK

The Great mountain range parkland (GHNP), is one amongst India's national parks, is found in Kullu region within the state of Himachal Pradesh. The park was established in one984 and is meet a locality of 1,171 km2 at associate altitude of between 1500 and 6000 m. the nice mountain range parkland could be a environment to varied flora and over 375 fauna species, together with roughly thirty one mammals, 181 birds, 3 reptiles, nine amphibians, eleven annelids, seventeen mollusks and 127 insects. they're protected beneath the strict pointers of the life Protection Act of 1972; thus any variety of searching isn't allowable.In Gregorian calendar month 2014, the nice mountain range parkland was another to the UNESCO list of World Heritage Sites. The UNESCO World Heritage web site Committee granted the standing to the park beneath the standards of "outstanding significance for variety conservation".
The GHNP is at the junction of world's 2 major faunal regions: the oriental to the south and palaearctic to the north. The temperate forest flora-fauna of GHNP represents the west extension of the Sino-Japanese Region. The high altitude scheme of the Northwest Himalaya has common plant parts with the adjacent Western and Central Asiatic region. As a results of its four,100 m elevation vary the park features a diversity of zones with their representative flora and fauna, like alpine, glacial, temperate, and sub tropical forests.These biological science parts square measure results of earth science evolution of Himalaya that continues nowadays from the action of tectonics and geological phenomenon. Over a hundred million years agone, the Indian sub-continent stony-broke removed from the big, southern solid ground, Gondwanaland and touched north.
It eventually slammed into the northern land mass, Laurasia, and shaped the large folded-up mountains of the Himalaya. owing to this union of Gondwanaland and Asiatic landmasses, exchange of flora and fauna was doable and this ultimately LED to the distinctive biological science options within the region. the nice mountain range parkland is home to over 375 faunal species. to date species of thirty one mammals, 181 birds, 3 reptiles, nine amphibians, eleven annelids, seventeen mollusks and 127 insects happiness to 6 orders are known and documented. Most of the mountain range fauna has been given protection beneath the high priority protection class of Schedule I of the Indian life (Protection) Act, 1972. The authorities of Himachal Pradesh has prohibited searching within the state for over 10 years. A trek of thirty five to forty five metric linear unit in any of the park's valleys brings one into the high altitude environment (3,500 m and above) of animals like blue sheep, cat, mountain range Ursus arctos, mountain range tahr, and deer. Best sightings is created in season (September–November) as animals begin their seasonal migration to lower altitudes.

Tuesday, 13 June 2017

Ladakh, Leh Ladakh Tours, Himachal Tour Packages


LADAKH

LADAKH
Ladakh ("land of high passes") may be a region in Indian state of Jammu and geographic region that presently extends from the mountain range mountain chain to the most nice chain to the south, occupied by individuals of Indo-Aryan and Tibetan descent. it's one among the foremost sparsely inhabited regions in Jammu and square measurea|geographic area|geographical region|geographic region} and its culture and history are closely associated with that of Tibet.
Historically, the region enclosed the Baltistan (Baltiyul) valleys (now largely in Pakistan), the complete higher Indus natural depression, the remote Zanskar, Lahaul and Spiti to the south, abundant of Ngari together with the Rudok region and Guge within the east, Aksai Chin within the northeast (extending to the Kun Lun Mountains), and therefore the Nubra natural depression to the north over Khardong La within the Ladakh vary. modern Ladakh borders Tibet to the east, the Lahaul and Spiti regions to the south, the depression of geographic region, Jammu and Baltiyul regions to the west, and therefore the southwest corner of Sinkiang across the Karakoram Pass within the way north.
 Ladakh is illustrious for its remote mountain beauty and culture. Aksai Chin is one among the controversial border areas between China and Asian nation. it's administered by China as a part of Hotan County however is additionally claimed by Asian nation as an area of the Ladakh region of the state of Jammu and geographic region. In 1962, China and Asian nation fought a short war over Aksai Chin and Arunachal Pradesh, however in 1993 and 1996 the 2 countries signed agreements to respect the road of Actual management.
















In the past Ladakh gained importance from its strategic location at the crossroads of vital trade routes, however since the Chinese authorities closed the borders with Tibet and Central Asia within the Sixties, international trade has dwindled apart from commercial enterprise. Since 1974, the govt. of Asian nation has with success inspired commercial enterprise in Ladakh. Since Ladakh may be a a part of strategically vital Jammu and geographic region, the Indian military maintains a powerful presence within the region.
The largest city in Ladakh is Leh, followed by Kargil. virtually 1/2 Ladakhis area unit religious order Muslims and therefore the rest area unit largely Tibetan Buddhists. Some Ladakhi activists have in recent times necessitated Ladakh to be well-grooved as a union territory thanks to perceived unfair treatment by {kashmir|Kashmir|Cashmere|Jammu and geographic region|geographical area|geographic area|geographical region|geographic region} and Ladakh's cultural variations with preponderantly Muslim Kashmir.
Rock carvings found in several components of Ladakh indicate that the realm has been occupied from Neolithic times.  Ladakh's earliest inhabitants consisted of a mixed Indo-Aryan population of Mons and Dards, UN agency notice mention within the works of historiographer, Nearchus, Megasthenes, Pliny,  Ptolemy, and therefore the geographical lists of the Puranas. round the first century, Ladakh was an area of the Kushana empire. Buddhism unfold into western Ladakh from geographic region within the second century once abundant of jap Ladakh and western Tibet was still practising the Bon faith. The seventh century Buddhist traveller Xuanzang describes the region in his accounts.


In the eighth century, Ladakh was concerned within the clash between Tibetan growth pressing from the East and Chinese influence exerted from Central Asia through the passes.[citation needed] Suzerainty over Ladakh ofttimes modified hands between China and Tibet. In 842 Nyima-Gon, a Tibetan royal aristocrat annexed Ladakh for himself when the break-up of the Tibetan empire, and supported a separate Ladakhi folk. throughout this era, Ladakh nonheritable a preponderantly Tibetan population. The folk spearheaded the second spreading of Buddhism, commercialism non secular ideas from north-west Asian nation, significantly from geographic region. the primary spreading of Buddhism was the one in Tibet correct
A chronicle of Ladakh compiled within the seventeenth century referred to as the La dvags royal rabs, which means the Royal Chronicle of the Kings of Ladakh recorded that this boundary was ancient and well-known. the primary a part of the Chronicle was written within the years 1610–1640 and therefore the last half towards the top of the seventeenth century. The work has been translated into English by A. H. Francke and printed in 1926 in metropolis titled the Antiquities of Indian Tibet. In volume a pair of, the Ladakhi Chronicle describes the partition by King Skyid-lde-ngima-gon of his kingdom between his 3 sons, then the chronicle delineated  the extent of territory secured by that son. The following quotation is from page 94 of this book:

Friday, 9 June 2017

GURUDWARA SAHIB MANIKARAN Himachal tour packages,kullu manali packages,kullu manali shimla package

GURUDWARA SAHIB MANIKARAN 
GURUDWARA SAHIB MANIKARAN

Manikaran is found within the Annapurna vale on stream Annapurna, northeast of Bhuntar within the Kullu District of Himachal Pradesh. it's at AN altitude of 1760 m and is found concerning thirty five kilometre from Kullu. This village attracts tourists visiting Manali and Kullu to its hot springs and pilgrim centres. AN experimental heat plant has additionally been established here. Manikaran may be a journeying centre for Hindus and Sikhs. The Hindus believe that Manu recreated human life in Manikaran when the flood, creating it a sacred space. it's several temples and a gurudwara. There area unit temples of the Hindu deities avatar, Krishna, and Vishnu. The world is renowned for its hot springs and its stunning landscape. in line with legend, once the Hindu God Shiva and his consort Annapurna were walking within the vale, Annapurna born one amongst her earrings. The jewel was taken over by Shesha, the serpent spiritual being, World Health Organization then disappeared into the world with it. Shesha solely relinquished the jewel once Shiva performed the cosmic dance, the Tandava and shot the jewel up through the water.
Apparently, jewels continuing to be thrown up within the waters at Manikaran till the 1905 Kangra earthquake. in line with the Sikhs, throughout third Udasi, the founding father of religion religious leader came to the current place in fifteen Asu 1574 Bikrami along with his follower Bhai Mardana. Mardana felt hungry and that they had no food. religious leader sent Mardana to gather food for the langar (the Community Kitchen). many of us given atta (flour) to create Roti(bread). The one drawback was that there was no fireplace to cook the food.Guru Nanak asked Mardana to carry a stone and he complied and a fountain appeared. As directed by religious leader, Mardana place the rolled chapatis within the spring to his despair the chapatis sank.Guru Nanak then told him to hope to God oral communication that if his chapattis float long ago he would give one chapati in His name.Once he prayed all the chapatis started floating punctually baked.Guru Nanak aforesaid that anyone World Health Organization donates within the name of God, his sunken  things float back.
The legend of Manikaran states that whereas roaming around, Lord Shiva and god Annapurna, once chanced upon an area that was encircled by mountains and was lush inexperienced. Enamoured by the wonder of the place, they determined to pay a while there. it's believed that they really spent eleven hundred years here. throughout their keep here, god Annapurna lost her mani (precious stones) within the waters of a stream. Upset over the loss, she asked Shiva to retrieve it. Lord Shiva commanded his attendant to search out the mani for Annapurna. However, once they unsuccessful, he was very angry. He opened his pineal eye, a enormously inauspicious event that semiconductor diode to disturbances within the universe. AN charm was created before the serpent god, Sheshnag, to pacify Lord Shiva.  Sheshnag hissed thereby giving rise to a flow of boiling water. The water contact the whole space leading to the emergence of precious stones of the sort god Annapurna had lost.
Lord Shiva and god Annapurna were happy at the result. The name Manikaran springs from this legend. The water continues to be hot and is taken into account very auspicious. A journeying to the current place is assumed of as complete. it's additionally believed that there's no got to pay a visit to Kashi when visiting this place. The water of the spring is additionally speculated to have curative powers. The water is thus hot that rice is deep-fried in it. The Hindu Temples at Manikaran Lord Ramchandra Temple The temple was created by Raja Jagat Singh within the seventeenth century.Temple of Lord Shiva This temple is massively revered because it belongs to Lord Shiva. However, AN earthquake in 1905 caused injury to the temple and it had been slightly canted. The importance of Manikaran is additionally judged from the actual fact that devtas of Kullu vale pay regular visit to the current place on nominal dates.

Friday, 2 June 2017

MALL ROAD SHIMLA Himachal tour packages,kullu manali packages,kullu manali shimla package

MALL ROAD SHIMLA
MALL ROAD SHIMLA

Mall Road is that the main street in Shimla, the capital town of Himachal Pradesh, India. made throughout British colonial rule, the Mall road is found tier below the ridge. The offices of municipal corporation, fireplace service, and police office square measure set here. cars, except emergency vehicles aren't allowed on this road. For this reason, the locals — and tourists(including Indian and foreign) — square measure usually found strolling on this road within the evenings. Mall road contains a variety of showrooms, shops, shops, restaurants and cafes.  A Himachal department store that provides handicraft product of Himachal Pradesh like domestically designed woollen cloths, branded cloths, pottery things, and jewelry is additionally set here.
There square measure a minimum of 3 books retailers together with one that sells previous books. Scandal purpose_Scandal point, as seen from the Ridge, Shimla Scandal purpose is wherever the Mall road joins Ridge road on the side. The name arose from the commotion caused by the supposed running away of a British girl with associate degree Indian maharajah. The story goes that the maharajah of Patiala had eloped with the girl of British people Viceroy. This had crystal rectifier to the maharajah being banished from getting into Shimla by British people authorities. He countered the move by setting himself a brand new summer capital – currently famed hill resort of Chail, forty five kilometer from Shimla.
The foremost distinguished feature of the purpose these days could be a sculpture of the Indian rebel Lala Lajpat Rai (no reference to the scandal).
Next to Scandal purpose is that the General Post workplace, Shimla. Gaiety Theater-Gaiety Theater, set on the Mall, was opened on thirty might 1887. several common film personalities have performed on its stage. Today, the Gaiety is primarily notable for its social club. colleges in Shimla use this theater for humanistic discipline. the arena has been restored with the initial structure untouched to stay its heritage preserved whereas creating it a lot of enticing. Kali metropolis Temple-The temple was inbuilt 1845. it's dedicated to the divinity Kali. it's believed that in associate degree ancient temple of Shimla, the divinity Kali existed, close to Jakhoo. within the temple a picket image is worshiped domestically.Town Hall-The recently restored Municipal Corporation building of Shimla adds to the encompassing design,[6] paying homage to the pre-independence era. The building is preserved in its original type. the massive steps and therefore the entrance to the current building square measure a typical web site for photos depiction the Mall at Shimla. quite five large integer rupees were spent in renovating this colonial subject area marvel.

Friday, 26 May 2017

PIN VALLEY NATIONAL PARK Himachal tour packages,kullu manali packages,kullu manali shimla package

PIN VALLEY NATIONAL PARK 
PIN VALLEY NATIONAL PARK

Pin depression park may be a park of Bharat situated inside the Lahaul and Spiti district, within the state of Himachal Pradesh, in way Northern Bharat.Steeped in historical and gift day Buddhist Tibetan culture, the world has several Tibetan Buddhist influences, evident architecturally in monasteries and stupas, and within the daily living of its residents and lamas.Pin depression park was established by Bharat in 1987. The park is found within the desert home ground of the Spiti depression, inside the Cold Desert region Reserve, within the mountain chain region.
Spreading south of Dhankar Gompa close to the Tibetan border, the park marks the border between the once separate districts of Lahaul and Spiti. The elevation of the park ranges from concerning three,500 metres (11,500 ft) close to Ka Dogri to over vi,000 metres (20,000 ft) at its highest purpose. With its snow laden unknown higher reaches and slopes, the Park forms a natural home ground for variety of vulnerable animals as well as the big cat and Siberian Capra ibex. thanks to the park's high altitude and extreme temperatures, the vegetation density is thin, consisting principally of alpine trees and groves of deodar cedar (Cedrus deodara).
In summer, rare birds like the mountain range snowcock, chukar partridge, snow partridge and snowfinch flourish within the park. Some plants inside the park's alpine habitats have important medicative properties. Twenty-two rare and vulnerable medicative plant species, are discovered in and around Pin depression park, that area unit distributed over ten totally different home ground sorts. magnoliid dicot genus rotundifolium, Arnebia euchroma, joint fir gerardiana, Ferula jaeschkeana, Hyoscymus niger area unit the vulnerable however medicinally necessary plants occur during this park.

Tuesday, 23 May 2017

Naggar Art Gallery, Himachal Tour & Travel, Kullu Manali Packages, Shimla Manali Sightseen

NAGGAR ART GALLERY


 ART GALLERY, NAGGAR



.Nicholas Roerich ( Oct nine, 1874 – December thirteen, 1947) – renowned conjointly as Nikolai Konstantinovich Rerikh  was a Russian painter, writer, anthropologist, worshipper, perceived by some in Russia as associate enlightener, thinker, and name, UN agency in his youth was influenced by a movement in Russian society round the non secular. He was inquisitive about mental state and different non secular practices and his paintings ar aforesaid to own hypnotic expression.
Born in Saint military campaign, Russia, to a well-off notary father of Baltic German ancestry and a Russian mother,  he lived in varied places round the world till his death in Naggar,  Himachal Pradesh, India. Trained as associate creative person and a attorney, his main interests were literature, philosophy, archeology, and particularly art. Roerich was a frenzied activist for the reason for protective art and design throughout times of war. He earned several nominations for the Nobel Peace Prize long list.  The so-called Roerich Pact was signed into law by the United States and most nations of the Pan-American Union in April 1935.

Raised in late-19th-century St. Petersburg, Roerich matriculated simultaneously at St. Petersburg University and the Imperial Academy of Arts during 1893. He received the title of "artist" in 1897 and a degree in law the next year. He found early employment with the Imperial Society for the Encouragement of the Arts, whose school he directed from 1906 to 1917. Despite early tensions with the group, he became a member of Sergei Diaghilev's "World of Art" society; he was president of the society from 1910 to 1916.


Artistically, he became known as his generation's most talented painter of Russia's ancient past, a topic that was compatible with his lifelong interest in archaeology. He also succeeded as a stage designer, achieving his greatest fame as one of the designers for Diaghilev's Ballets Russes. His best-known designs were for Borodin's Prince Igor (1909 and later productions), and costumes and set for The Rite of Spring (1913),  composed by Igor Stravinsky




Another of Roerich's passions was architecture. His acclaimed publication "Architectural Studies" (1904–1905) – the dozens of paintings he completed of fortresses, monasteries, churches, associated different monuments throughout 2 long journeys through Russia – galvanized his decades-long career as an activist on behalf of creative and beaux arts preservation. He conjointly designed spiritual art for places of worship throughout Russia and Ukraine: most notably the Queen of Heaven fresco for the Church of the Holy Ghost that the patronne Maria Tenisheva designed close to her Talashkino estate; and therefore the glass windows for the Datsan Gunzechoinei throughout 1913–1915.


During the primary decade of the decennary and within the early 1910s, Roerich, for the most part because of the influence of his married person capital of Montana, developed associate interest in japanese religions, moreover as different (to Christianity) belief systems like belief. each Roerichs became avid readers of the Vedantist essays of Ramakrishna and Vivekananda, the poetry of Rabindranath Tagore, and therefore the Bhagavad Bhagavad-GitaThe Roerichs' commitment to occult mysticism inflated steady. it had been particularly intense throughout war I and therefore the Russian revolutions of 1917, to that the couple, like several Russian intellectuals, accorded apocalyptic significance. The influence of belief, Vedanta, Buddhism, and different mystical topics are often detected not solely in several of his paintings, however within the several short stories and poems Roerich wrote before and when the 1917 revolutions, as well as the Flowers of Morya cycle, begun in 1907 and completed in 1921


After the revolution of 1917 and therefore the finish of the tsarist regime, Roerich, a political moderate UN agency valued Russia's cultural heritage quite ideology and party politics, had a vigorous half in creative politics. With Maxim Gorky and Aleksandr Benois, he participated with the supposed "Gorky Commission" and its successor organization, the humanities Union (SDI). each tried to realize the eye of the probationary Government and urban center Soviet on the requirement to make a coherent cultural policy and, most desperately, defend art and design from destruction and destruction. At a similar time, however, unwellness forced Roerich to go away the capital and reside in geographic area, the district bordering European nation. He had already quit the presidency of the globe of Art society, and he currently quit the office of the college of the Imperial Society for the Encouragement of the humanities. when the Russian Revolution and therefore the acquisition of power of Lenin's Bolshevik Party, Roerich became progressively discouraged regarding Russia's political future. throughout early 1918, he, Helena, and their 2 sons patron saint and Sviatoslav emigrated to European nation.